Orrorin tugenensis

Orrorin Tugenensis:

Pushing back the hominin line

The Kenya Palaeontology Expedition (KPE) report in December 2000 the discovery of what is almost certainly a new species of hominid at Kapsomin in Kenya’s Baringo district; see the BBC news story; for background, see family trees. The excavating team includes Martin Pickford from the KPE and Brigitte Senut from the Museum of Natural History in Paris. The remains have not yet been dated, but they were found in found in six-million-year-old rocks. They include a left femur, pieces of jaw with teeth, isolated upper and lower teeth, arm bones, and a finger bone; the excavations are ongoing. Preliminary analyses suggest the hominid, the size of a chimpanzee, was an agile climber and that it walked on two legs when on the ground. The tentative date of six million years indicate a date very close to the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, although this date may now need to be pushed back.

The find was published by Senut et al. in January 2001 (see bibliography below). The authors report the recovery of remains of an early hominid from four localities in the Lukeino Formation in the Tugen Hills, Kenya. Radioisotopic age determinations from lavas underlying and overlying the Lukeino Formation and from crystals from the sediments themselves indicate an age of ca 6 million years for these hominids. The Lukeino hominids are thus the oldest known members of the family (Pickford & Senut, 2001).

The find comprises thirteen fossils belonging to at least five individuals. “The femora indicate that the Lukeino hominid was a biped when on the ground, whilst its humerus and manual phalanx show that it possessed some arboreal adaptations. The upper central incisor is large and robust, the upper canine is large for a hominid and retains a narrow and shallow anterior groove, the lower fourth premolar is ape-like, with offset roots and oblique crown, and the molars are relatively small, with thick enamel.” (Senut et al., 2001). A new genus and species is proposed: Orrorin tugenensis.

The authors note that the molars of Orrorin are smaller than those of Australopithecines and are closer in size to those of Ardipithecus. “The anterior teeth, upper incisor and canine, as well as the lower P4 are less hominid-like and more ape-like, being closer in morphology to teeth of female chimpanzees. The molar enamel is thick. Another important feature is the relatively great depth of the corpus mandibularis, which is an archaic feature among hominids. Compared to later hominids, it seems that small jugal teeth relative to body size would be a primitive feature, inherited from the common ancestor of African apes and hominids, and retained in the Homo lineage. If this is so, then Australopithecines would have progressively developed megadonty — large jugal teeth and relatively small bodies. The postcranial evidence suggests that Orrorin tugenensis was already adapted to habitual or perhaps even obligate bipedalism when on the ground, but that it was also a good climber. Many scholars have considered that the earliest hominids were small animals; the femur and humerus of Orrorin are 1.5 times larger than those of AL 288.1, probably equivalent in size to a female common chimpanzee, indicating that the ancestor may have been larger than previously envisaged.” (Senut et al., 2001). 

The authors conclude that on the basis of dental and postcranial morphology, it appears that Orrorin belongs to the hominid lineage, which was already present 6 million years ago. They suggest this confirms the hypothesis that the divergence between apes and humans took place prior to 6 million years ago, and probably between 9 and 7 million years ago, as they show in the diagram to the right. In this diagram, Ardipithecus ramidus is the ancestor of Pan and the Australopithecines an extinct line — a view at odds with the view of most paleoanthropologists (cf. family trees and Ardipithecus ramidus). For an impression of the early discussion, see Michael Balter, Scientists Spar Over Claims of Earliest Human Ancestor, Science 291 5508 (23 Feb 2001): 1460-1461 (full text, external).

L.C. Aiello and M. Collard (2001), Our newest oldest ancestor? Nature 410 (29 Mar): 526, applaud the find but question the interpretations, as reported in ScienceWeek:

Aiello and Collard “point out that the announcement of the Orrorin find has caused considerable stir, partly because the deposits of the Tugen Hills are being prospected by two competing groups of researchers, and partly because Orrorin is claimed to be approximately 6 million years old. This makes Orrorin 1.5 million years older than Ardipithecus ramidus, the oldest previously recognized candidate for the earliest hominin. Orrorin’s apparent age falls within the molecularly determined range of the last common ancestor between humans and the African apes.”

“Aiello and Collard point out that the great age of Orrorin does not seem to be in serious question. The geology of the Lukeino Formation is well known; the volcanic tuffs in this formation have been securely dated at 6.2 to 5.6 million years old by radiometric techniques; and there is little doubt that the specimens come from the Lukeino Formation sediments. But Aiello and Collard suggest that it is difficult to have the same confidence in the conclusions of Senut et al about human evolutionary history, since they adopt a scheme that contrasts sharply with prevailing ideas and that glosses over many areas of controversy and uncertainty.”

“Aiello and Collard point out that at least 13 known hominin species from Africa existed before Homo erectus, and that currently in consensus among most paleoanthropologists are only the following ideas concerning the main evolutionary paths: a) There are 5 hominin genera (Ardipithecus, Australopithecus, Paranthropus, Kenyanthropus, Homo). b) The large-toothed and massive-jawed genus Paranthropus represents a dead-end branch” (cf. hominoid taxonomy).

Aiello and Collard conclude,

It… appears that cranial and dental anatomy does not necessarily mirror molecularly determined phylogenies in modern primates, which casts considerable uncertainty on anatomically based evolutionary trees. For now, at least, it is probably best to avoid naming ancestors, and maintain a simple division: that between hominins of archaic aspect (Orrorin, Ardipithecus, Australopithecus — including Paranthropus — and Kenyanthropus) and hominins of modern aspect (Homo sapiens and the remaining species of Homo).

Source: ScienceWeek 13 July 2001.


Leslie C. Aiello, University College London, UK 

Martin Pickford, Chaire de Paléoanthropologie, Prehistoire du College de France, GDR 983 et UMR 8569 du CNRS, 8 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France 

Brigitte Senut, Laboratoire de paléontologie du Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, UMR 8569 et GDR 983 du CNRS, 8, rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France. 

Bibliography of the orrorin tugenensis find 

Pickford, M. and Senut, B. (2001). ‘Millennium ancestor’, a 6-million-year-old bipedal hominid from Kenya. South African Journal of Science 97. 1-2: 22. 

Senut, Brigitte; Martin Pickford; Dominique Gommery; Pierre Mein; Kiptalam Cheboi; Yves Coppens (2001). First hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino Formation, Kenya). Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences, Series IIA – Earth and Planetary Science 332. 2 (30 January 2001): 137-144. Full text (subscription required). 

Senut, Brigitte and Martin Pickford (2001). The geological and faunal context of Late Miocene hominid remains from Lukeino, Kenya. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences, Series IIA – Earth and Planetary Science 332. 2 (30 January 2001): 145-152. Full text (subscription required). 

Oldest’ ape-man fossils unearthed

The hominid was about the size of a chimpanzee

French and Kenyan scientists have unearthed what they believe to be the oldest remains of a hominid, or ape-man, ever found. 

Although the fossils themselves have not been dated, the rock in which they were discovered is known to be six million years old. 

The Kenya Palaeontology Expedition (KPE) said body parts belonging to at least five individuals, both male and female, had been recovered. 

These included an almost perfectly fossilised left femur showing the hominid had strong back legs which enabled it to walk upright – a characteristic which relates the creature directly to man. 

“Not only is this find older than any other previously known, it is also in a more advanced stage of evolution,” KPE palaeontologist Dr Martin Pickford told a news conference in Nairobi. 

Chimpanzee size

The first specimens were unearthed on 25 October at Kapsomin in the Tugen hills in Kenya’s Baringo district. 

Other body fragments include pieces of jaw with teeth, isolated upper and lower teeth, arm bones and a finger bone. 

“Preliminary studies of the arm and finger bones reveal that the Kapsomin hominid was an agile climber in the trees, whereas its leg bones indicate that when it was on the ground it walked on two legs,” the KPE said in a statement. 

“The teeth indicate that the species probably subsisted on hard-skinned fruits among the other foods … The canines are reduced when compared with those of apes, but are larger than those of modern humans,” it added. 

Dr Brigitte Senut, a team member from the Museum of Natural History in Paris, said the creature was about the size of a modern chimpanzee. 

Cat kill

Pickford and Senut said they were confident the team would unearth even more remains that could help form a near-perfect picture of the hominid. 

“We are just going to publish our initial findings, to get the excitement, and continue with our work,” Dr Pickford said. “I am sure there is still a lot more out there – possibly even older.” 

Fossil parts of other species found at the same site hint at a rich variety of fauna and flora. 

The KPE statement noted that the leg bones “had been chewed, indicating that the individuals to which they belonged probably fell prey to a large carnivore”. 

Pickford said: “It looks like he was killed and eaten by some sort of carnivore, probably a cat. It was probably dragged up a tree to the cat’s usual eating place and then bits fell into the water below.” Search BBC News Online





Orrorin tugenensis 

A key specimen of the human story, its position on the tree is debated – it is the oldest known hominin or should it be on placed on the tree before the human-line split from the line leading to chimpanzees?

Background of discovery


6.1 to 5.8 million years ago

Important fossil discoveries

A few fossil fragments, from five individuals, were found in Kenya in 2000. The remains include several limb bones, jaw fragments and isolated teeth. The holotype specimens are 2 mandible fragments, BAR1000a’00 and BAR1000b’00. An isolated lower molar (KNM LU 335), that may belong to this species, was discovered in this area in 1974.

What the name means

The genus name Orrorin means ‘original man’ in the Tugen language, whereas the species name tugenensis was assigned because the fossils were found in the Tugen Hills of Kenya.


Fossils have been found in the Tugen Hills, Kenya.

Relationships with other species

Its discoverers believe this species belongs on the human family tree. They claim that it is dissimilar to the genus Australopithecus, and that this genus should be moved to a side branch on the human tree, leaving Orrorin tugenensis as the earliest direct ancestor of humans. However, there is not enough evidence to support this argument due to the fragmentary nature of the remains. Other experts think this species may have lived before the ape and human line split so could be an ancestor of both lines or that it was a basal member of the hominin clade.

The species lived during a critical period in the human evolutionary timeline. It is widely believed human and chimps diverged from a common ancestor that lived between five and eight million years ago.

Key physical features


probably similar in size to a modern chimpanzee, but lack of cranial material makes this difficult to determine

Body size and shape

uncertain, probably similar in size to a modern chimpanzee


some features of the leg bones indicate this species was possibly bipedal. The femur was different from that of modern humans, fossil Homo and living apes and most closely resembled australopithecines that lived three to four million years ago.

some features of the leg bones are found in non-bipedal primates, suggesting that this species may not be bipedal. At the moment the evidence is inconclusive.

features of the arms bones (humerus) and a curved finger bone suggest it was also adapted for climbing tree

Jaws and teeth

primitive dental anatomy

teeth have thick enamel and are relatively small, although canines are relatively large and pointed compared to humans



There is no evidence for any specific cultural attributes. However, it may have used simple tools similar to those used by modern chimpanzees including:

twigs, sticks and other plant materials that were easily shaped or modified. These may have been used for a variety of simple tasks including obtaining food.

unmodified stones, that is stones that were not shaped or altered before being used. These tools may have been used to process hard foods such as nuts.

Environment and diet

When this species lived, the environment was open woodland with dense tree forests.

The large, flat molars suggest a diet of fruit and vegetables, but it may have also been an opportunistic meat eater.
Fran Dorey , Exhibition Project Coordinator 

Last Updated: 27 October 2009